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 IndexExtragalactic ObjectsGalaxies
Elliptical Galaxies
galaxies of round or elliptical shape
Spiral galaxies
flattened disks with spiral structure
Irregular galaxies (e.g., M82)
no definite structure
Peculiar galaxies
the galaxies with a feature in their structure or spectrum
Markarian galaxies
the galaxies of E, S0, Sa, Sb types with heightened ultraviolet emission
Seyfert galaxies
the active spiral galaxies with heightened infrared emission
Interacting galaxies
usually binary galaxies connected by one or several "bridges"
The First Galaxies
Welcome to the first galaxies website. Here you can learn about the latest research in field of the highest redshift galaxies.
Even Thin Galaxies Can Grow Fat Black Holes - NASA News Release
NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has detected plump black holes where least expected -- skinny galaxies.
Sloan Digital Sky Survey
Sloan Digital Sky Survey is a project to survey a 10000 square degree area on the Northern sky over a 5 year period. A processed subset, of about 1 TB in size, will consist of 1 million spectra, positions and image parameters for over 100 million objects, plus a mini-image centered on each object in every color. The data will be made available to the public after the completion of the survey.
Spirals and Ellipses
Brief descriptions of four main categories of galaxies from Hubble\'s classification.
VLT Images - Nearby Galaxies
Images of several nearby galaxies taken with ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory (Atacama, Chile) - world's largest optical telescope.
Galaxies information from Leicester University Educational Guide to Space
Brief account of Hubble's work and discoveries which have led him to his tuning fork diagram.
Galaxies - A popular overview
History of galaxies observing and research. Classes and contents of galaxies are discussed. Clusters of galaxies described as well.
Galaxies with Proper Names
List of galaxies with proper names with coordinates included.
Fletcher Astrophoto Gallery - Galaxies
Images of several well-known galaxies with descriptions.
Galaxies images
Galaxies images by Italian Col DrusciГЁ Observatory at Associazione Astronomica Cortina website.
Galaxies: Spiral, Elliptical, and Irregular
Galaxies page by Hands-On Universe Explorations.
Galaxies page by CyberSpace.
What Exactly is a Galaxy? -
Article by Wesley Colley.
Gravitational lens helps find galaxy building block
Discovery of the possible building block of present-day galaxies by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Keck Telescopes at a distance of 13.4 billion light-years.
Sea and Sky: Galaxies
Galaxies brief description with images by Sea and Sky.
The Galaxy Catalog by Zsolt Frei and James E. Gunn
A collection of images of 113 nearby galaxies. Images taken in several passbands and a color-composite image are included for each galaxy by Princeton University.
Classification of galaxies at HyperPhysics website by Georgia State University
Exploring the Hubble Sequence by Eye - Here's a challenging project for observers with larger telescopes
An article by Sky and Telescope.
ARVAL Catalog of Bright Galaxies
A catalogue by the Observatorio ARVAL in Caracas, Venezuela.
The Structure of the Milky Way
Gene Smith's Astronomy Tutorial at the University of California, San Diego website.
The Top 10 Galaxies
A list at the "Catching the Light" astrophotography website by Jerry Lodriguss.
Galaxy Drawings
Galaxy drawings by the Belmont Society.
Deep Sky Database:Search for galaxies and galaxy clusters
Search for Galaxies by Constellation, Magnitude and Major Axis Size. Deep Sky Database is an online observing list generator for amateur astronomers which employs a web-based version of the Saguaro Astronomy Club's database, consisting of over 10,000 records.
NSSDC Photo Gallery - Galaxies and Globular Clusters
Images of galaxies and globular clusters taken by the Hubble Space Telescope provided by National Space Science Data Center.
Active Galaxies Newsletter
An electronic publication dedicated to the observations and theory of active galaxies, provided by the University of Manchester Astronomy Group and edited by Rob Beswick.
NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
A big database of extragalactic objects operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology
Digitized Sky Survey
The Digitized Sky Survey comprises a set of all-sky photographic surveys in E, V, J, R, and N bands conducted with the Palomar and UK Schmidt telescopes. Images of any part of the sky may be extracted from the DSS, in either FITS or GIF format. A service from the Space Telescope Science Institute.
6dF Galaxy Survey
The 6dF Galaxy Survey is a spectroscopic survey of the entire southern sky with |b| > 10 degrees, based on the 2MASS nearinfrared galaxy catalog. SQL access to the database is provided. The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, UK
Galaxies and galaxy clusters
Galaxies and galaxy clusters images and information from Anglo-Australian Observatory.
External Galaxies and Their Evolution
An online astronomy lecture on structure and evolution of galaxies by Aeree Chung and Ben Johnson from Columbia University Astronomy and Astrophysics Department.
Imaging and Imagining Space
This site is intended as a virtual exhibition for images of space that professional astronomers have used in understanding the heavens. A gallery of optical and radio images of objects is presented, beginning with nearby objects in the solar system to deep space objects. Northwestern University website.
Field Guide to X-ray Sources :: Normal Galaxies & Starburst Galaxies
Brief introduction to galaxies properties and evolution from Chandra X-ray Observatory Center.
Galaxy Formation
Online lecture on galaxies structure and evolution by James Schombert at the University of Oregon website.
HubbleSite - News Releases about Galaxy
Hubble Space Telescope news releases related to galaxies.
The Cosmic Spectrum and the Color of the Universe
An attempt to represent all the sum of all the energy in the local volume of the universe emitted at different optical wavelengths of light using the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey by Karl Glazebrook & Ivan Baldry.
How old is the universe? Is the expansion slowing down or speeding up? What is the eventual fate of the universe? Exciting things are happening and new data are pouring in. In this paper, a series of models of increasing sophistication is presented and related to experimental data to help with these questions and to help with understanding and interpreting how observations are being reported in the press. By Edward J. Barlow.
The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey
The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) is a major spectroscopic survey taking full advantage of the unique capabilities of the 2dF facility built by the Anglo-Australian Observatory. The 2dFGRS SQL database can be searched via the WWW interface.
Introduction to galaxies, their formation and evolution. A Review of the Universe website - Structures, Evolutions, Observations, and Theories.
Understanding The Hubble Sequence of Galaxies
There are numerous schemes for classifying galaxies with well-justified additional complexities. However, this simple "theorist's cartoon" already highlights the big problem: Why do the compact ones rotate slowly while the bigger ones rotate rapidly. An article by George Lake at the website of the University of Washington.
Galaxies - The Spiral Nebulae
Gene Smith's Astronomy Tutorial at the University of California, San Diego website.
Best of AOP: Galaxies
Best Images of the Advanced Observing Program of National Optical Astronomy Observatory, available to the public at the Kitt Peak Visitor Center.
HyperLeda is an information system for astronomy: It consists in a database and tools to process that data according to the user's requirements. At present the database contains about 3 million objects, out of them 1 million are certainly galaxies (with a high level of confidence).
How Galaxies Rotate: Clues to Their Past?
A "Perspectives in Science" series online book published by the Carnegie Institution of Washington.
High Energy Astrophysics Picture Of the Week, May 6, 2002: Not Just Passing Through
The image above shows an X-ray image, obtained by the Chandra X-ray observatory, of a pair of colliding galaxies known as Arp 220.
Galaxies with AO
The close environment of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 7469. An adaptive optics image provided by W.M. Keck Observatory.
Galaxies Help Weigh Neutrinos
Physical Review Focus article on using data from an ongoing galactic survey to measure the neutrino mass.
Curious About Astronomy? Galaxies
A webpage on galaxies by "Ask an Astronomer" service at Cornell University including links to relevant Internet resources.
What Are Galaxies? How Do They Form and Evolve?
An article by NASA's Science Mission Directorate.
Measuring our Universe from Galaxy Redshift Surveys
An article by Ofer Lahav and Yasushi Suto at Living Reviews in Relativity website.
Astronomy Answers: Universe Family Tree: Galaxy
A brief description of galaxies by Dr. Louis Strous from the Utrecht University.
APOD: 2005 June 26 - The 2MASS Galaxy Sky
Are the nearest galaxies distributed randomly? A plot of over one million of the brightest "extended sources" detected by the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) shows that they are not.
The Physics of the Intergalactic Medium
The Physics of the Intergalactic Medium is an academic research network funded by the Human Potential Programme of the European Commission. This network seeks a unified description of the large-scale distribution, thermal and ionization state, chemical composition, and evolution of the intergalactic medium.
Information on galaxies by Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Caltech Astronomy : Palomar Observatory Galaxy Images
Astronomical Images from the Palomar Observatory.
SkyView Virtual Observatory
SkyView is a Virtual Observatory on the Net generating images of any part of the sky at wavelengths in all regimes from Radio to Gamma-Ray. Provided by NASA GSFC Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics.
Galaxy Formation Group
Links to galaxy formation research projects at the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics.
Introduction to galaxies including their images and spectra, provided by NASA's High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center.
What is the Milky Way? Random motions in a cluster or galaxy. What is galactic rotation? Web pages by Cornell University.
ISO Normal Galaxies Results Gallery
Normal galaxies images and spectra provided by ESA's Infrared Space Observatory. constitutes a non-commercial effort to provide the deep sky observer's most valuable tools online; the map and the lists of objects.
More Often Than Not, Massive Galaxies Form By Mergers - a Scientific American article
New data seem to show that galaxies collide all the time. In fact, the oldest and largest galaxies in the universe most likely formed from such intergalactic combinations.
The Cosmic Dance of Distant Galaxies - European Southern Observatory science release
Studying several tens of distant galaxies, an international team of astronomers found that galaxies had the same amount of dark matter relative to stars 6 billion years ago as they have now. If confirmed, this suggests a much closer interplay between dark and normal matter than previously believed. The scientists also found that as many as 4 out of 10 galaxies are out of balance. These results shed a new light on how galaxies form and evolve since the Universe was only half its current age.
Normal Galaxies
A brief introduction to regular galaxies at the website of the University of Mississippi.
Structure of the Universe
An article by Hans Haubold, UN Outer Space Office, Vienna International Centre, Vienna, Austria, and A. M. Mathai, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, McGill University, MontrГѓВ©al, QuГѓВ©bec, Canada.
Galaxies : Photos by NAOJ PR Office
Images of galaxies from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan image gallery.
NASA - Galaxy
An article on galaxies by World Book @ NASA.
Andromeda Galaxy
Andromeda is the largest member of the Local Group of galaxies, which includes the Milky Way and its satellite galaxies. An article from the Sol Company's website.
Cosmic Voyage-The Online Resource for Amateur Astronomers
Cosmic Voyage offers something of interest for amateur astronomers at every level. A website by Bill Ferris.
The NGC/IC Project
The NGC/IC Project is a collaborative effort between professional and amateur astronomers to correctly identify all of the original NGC and IC objects, starting with the original discoverer's notes and working forward in time to encompass the work of contemporary astronomers, both professional and amateur, such that the identity of each of the NGC and IC objects is known with as much certainty as we can reasonably bring to it from the existing historical record.
Galaxies & Distant Universe
High-resolution images provided by the Gemini Observatory.
SDSS SkyServer DR5
Welcome to the DR5 Catalog Archive Server providing public access to SDSS data for professional astronomers.
SkyServer Famous Places - Galaxies
The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has taken images of more than 50 million galaxies, from giant spirals to tiny smudges of light. Below are some of the most beautiful.
Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies
Images Acquired Using the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, La Palma. Provided by the Institute of Astronomy of the University of Cambridge.
True Colour Images of Galaxy Groups
A collection of galaxy groups images by Duncan A. Forbes using Isaac Newton Telescope.
Sloan Digital Sky Survey's SkyServer Basic Science Project - Galaxies
Galaxies are huge - hundreds of millions of times bigger than our solar system. But even the nearest ones are so far away they look like tiny, fuzzy spots in the sky.How do astronomers study things that are so big and so far away? In this project, you'll learn by looking at galaxies yourself.
Galaxy distribution - an article from the Cosmic Evolution website
How are the galaxies spread throughout the expansive tracts far from the Milky Way? Is there some boundary, or terminus, beyond which galaxies are no longer seen? Or do they reside everywhere, all the way out to the limits of the observable Universe?
A gallery of galaxy images by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Galaxies, Colliding Galaxies, Cluster Of Galaxies
Galaxy stories, multimedia and news.
Big bang pushed back two billion years - a New Scientist article
Our universe may be 15% larger and older than we thought, according to new measurements of the distance to a nearby galaxy.
"Dwarf Tales" - An electronic dwarf galaxy newsletter
"Dwarf Tales" covers all aspects of dwarf galaxy research, observational as well as theoretical studies; stellar content, ISM, dynamics, formation and evolution.
Galaxies and the Universe - WWW Course Notes
Webpages by Dr. William C. Keel of the University of Alabama.
Deckard Galaxies Catalogue for Astro Imagers
KGKat has been compiled as an extract from Saguaro Catalog and is intended for northern astroimagers.
Visual Deep Sky Observing - Observations, sketches and articles
A website by F. Jordan.
UK Dark Matter Collaboration
The UK Dark Matter Collaboration is a consortium of astrophysicists and particle physicists, conducting experiments with the ultimate goal of detecting rare scattering events which would occur if the Galactic dark matter consists largely of a new heavy neutral particle, a `neutralino' or `WIMP'.
Department galaxies and cosmology
Information about galaxy research at Max Planck Institute for Astronomy.
Observational Cosmology: From High Redshift Galaxies to the Blue Pacific
An article by Halton C. Arp on his official website.
Galaxies near, far, clustered, interacting and just plain strange
Images of galaxies by Gilbert A. Esquerdo.
Do Galaxies Follow Darwinian Evolution? - European Southern Observatory science release
Using VIMOS on ESO's Very Large Telescope, a team of French and Italian astronomers have shown the strong influence the environment exerts on the way galaxies form and evolve.
The Hubble Constant
An article by Neal Jackson at Living Reviews in Relativity website.
Glimpse a galaxy ripped apart - Astronomy Magazine article
Observations of a galaxy being torn apart by gravity gives clues about galaxy formation.
2MASS Atlas Image Gallery: Galaxies
2MASS Atlas Image Gallery at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center of the California Institute of Technology.
30 Largest Infrared Galaxies
The Two Micron All Sky Survey provides our first global look at galaxies in infrared light. This image presents the 30 largest galaxies seen in the infrared sky.
Galaxies don't change much - Astronomy Magazine article
A new study reveals that some fundamental properties of galaxies have changed very little over the last 8 billion years.
Galaxy images by Galaxy Photography
Galaxy images by Jason Ware.
Spectral Library of Galaxies, Clusters and Stars
This is a compilation of spectra collected along the years at ESO, OHP, CFHT and CASLEO in the near-ultraviolet, optical and near-infrared ranges, complemented by IUE observations. Provided by Santos J.F.C. Jr. et al.
Atlas of The Universe by Richard Powell
This web page is designed to give everyone an idea of what our universe actually looks like. There are nine main maps on this web page, each one approximately ten times the scale of the previous one. The first map shows the nearest stars and then the other maps slowly expand out until we have reached the scale of the entire visible universe.
University of Victoria - Physics 303
A course for non-physicists, non-astronomers that will explore the Origins of Space, Time and Matter in the Universe as well as touch upon our place within.
NOVA Online | Runaway Universe
Welcome to the companion Web site to "Runaway Universe," originally broadcast on November 11, 2000. The program follows the efforts of two rival teams of astronomers as they search for exploding stars, map out gigantic cosmic patterns of galaxies, and grapple with the ultimate question: What is the fate of the universe?
WMAP Intoduction to Cosmology
Cosmology is the scientific study of the large scale properties of the Universe as a whole. It endeavors to use the scientific method to understand the origin, evolution and ultimate fate of the entire Universe. Like any field of science, cosmology involves the formation of theories or hypotheses about the universe which make specific predictions for phenomena that can be tested with observations.
Discovering a Dark Universe: A Q&A with Saul Perlmutter - a Scientific American article
Dark energy is pushing the universe apart at an ever faster rate. Astrophysicist Saul Perlmutter recounts the experimental approaches he took to make that discovery.
Galaxy Collisions by Curtis Struck
A review article for non-specialists, Physics Reports, 1999.
Normal Galaxies
An image gallery by the Department of Physics & Astronomy of the University of Alabama.
Japanese and NASA Satellites Unveil New Type of Active Galaxy - NASA Goddard Space Flight Center news release
An international team of astronomers using NASA's Swift satellite and the Japanese/U.S. Suzaku X-ray observatory has discovered a new class of active galactic nuclei (AGN).
ROSAT Images - Galaxies
X-Ray images of galaxies made with the ROSAT telescope.
A Galaxy with the Wrong Shape - Sky and Telescope article
A newly discovered dwarf galaxy in Hercules isn't like the millions of other 'dwarf spheroidals' known in the universe. It's cigar shaped.
Galaxies. Disk, Evolution
An essay from the Astronomy and Astrophysics Encyclopedia by Joshua E. Barnes.
Galaxy Zoo
Galaxy Zoo is an online astronomy project which invites members of the public to log on to its website and help classify one million galaxies.
NOAO Image Gallery: Galaxies
Images by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. The gallery includes pictures taken with the facilities of NOAO.
UA Astronomers on Team Describing New Evidence of "Inconvenient" Galaxy - University of Alabama news release
Discovery of two new components within a puzzling spiral galaxy confirm it must have a pair of arms winding in the opposite direction from most galaxies.
Galaxy Dynamics | John Dubinski
The goal of this project is to use supercomputer simulations of realistic model galaxies to illustrate these slow and majestic dynamical processes on an accessible timescale and so breathe life into the iconic images of galaxies created by the world's great telescopes.
How Do Galaxies Grow? Assembling the Most Massive Galaxies in the Universe
Astronomers have caught multiple massive galaxies in the act of merging about 4 billion years ago. This discovery, made possible by combining the power of the best ground- and space-based telescopes, uniquely supports the favoured theory of how galaxies form.
Galaxies - Information and Observations
Recommendations for amateur galaxy observers.
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